Sunday, March 22, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly #21

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #21: 

"Rare/Scarce Ingredients"

The Challenge: Rare/Scarce Ingredients
The rare ingredient I chose was Maple Sugar. Maple sap flows from trees in late winter and the early spring as the days start to warm up, usually February and March but this year in mid-late March. The sap flows clear and barely sweet. After the sap is collected from maple trees in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Quebec, Canada; the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire (and to a lesser degree, Ontario and Prince Edward Island, Canada; the states of New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan), it is boiled and filtered to make syrup. [1] See the process at Parker's Maple Barn in Mason, New Hampshire. Maple sugar is made by boiling the sap longer than needed to make syrup. Native Americans discovered the process and placed a high value on maple sugar. Maple sugar was known as ziinzibaakwad or Sinibuckwud in the Algonquin language. [2]

European colonists called this type of sugar "Indian Sugar." They copied the techniques and began exporting maple sugar in the 17th century. [3] In the 18th century, as cane sugar became a valuable, expensive commodity and a hot political topic (Revolutionary War, slavery), maple sugar was a happy alternative.  However, by the early 19th century, white sugar became favored by Europeans and Americans of European descent, though maple sugar was still cheaper.[4] In 1890, U.S. President William McKinley imposed a tariff on high quality white sugar, in hope of stimulating the production of local sugar. Despite the attempt, white sugar remained the favorite of the American public. [5] During the World Wars, when sugar was rationed, maple syrup and maple sugar replaced cane sugar as a sweetener. Today maple sugar is rare and can usually be found at New England farms and probably at winter farmer's markets and farm stands.  (Please note that the stuff in the plastic jug by well-known brands is not true maple syrup).

[1]Helen and Scott Nearing, The Maple Sugar Book, New York, 1950.
[2]"maple sugar," Wikipedia; Nearing, 23.
[3] Wikipedia.
[4] Nearing, 42, 63.
[5]Nearing, 64.

The Recipe: 
Maple Nuggets
Nearing, 249
1950, America

Boil 1 c. maple syrup or 1 c. maple sugar with a few tablespoons of water until 325 degrees. Remove from fire and add 2 T. butter and beat until begins to thicken. Add 3 cups puffed rice or wheat which have been crisped over heat. Mix thoroughly. Drop on wax paper. Needs no cooking.

How Did You Make It:
Unfortunately I lost my photos.
I measured out 1/4 c. of maple sugar and a Tablespoon of water and boiled. My mixture was too watery so I added some maple syrup and boiled longer. My candy thermometer wouldn't work in my small pan so I had to guess. When the mixture boiled and thickened a bit, I poured in some Rice Krispies and made into lumps. I don't think I did it right and I only had about 3 pieces of candy.

I then tried Maple Creams from Aunt Babette's Cookbook published in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1889.
I boiled about 1/4 cup sugar with a little water until the soft ball stage. I managed one ball before my sugar hardened. 

Time to Complete: A couple hours probably. I wasn't very patient and didn't see how long it took.

Total Cost:
Maple sugar cost $3.99 for 3 oz. at the maple barn

How Successful Was It?: Failure!

How Accurate Is It?:  The recipe was accurate but my chemistry was all wrong!

Sunday, March 8, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly: Challenge #20

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #20: 

"Descriptive Foods"

The ChallengeFoods served at notable events in history 
What kind of food was served at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth? What did Benjamin Franklin eat at the Constitutional Convention? Find a food item that was served at a notable event in history, research the recipe, and recreate the dish.

The event I initially chose was Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in 1887. Marking 50 years on the throne, the empire-wide celebration lasted all day on June 20, 1887. It began with an outdoor breakfast at Frogmore where Prince Albert was buried and ended with an elegant banquet for foreign kings and princes, along with the governing heads of Britain's overseas colonies and dominions. (Wikipedia)

Regular people celebrated with recipes they could make at home. Recipes like Jubilee Cakes, Jubilee Tea Cakes, Jubilee Buns, and Jubilee puddings appeared in cookbooks. 
Ivan Day, "Jubilee Food Revisited", Food History Jottings

Ivan Day found this recipe for Jubilee Cakes
Robert Wells, The Bread & Biscuit Baker's and Sugar Boiler's Assistant. 2nd Edition (London: 1890).

Not having a kitchen scale or possessing math skills, I opted for the easier to make Queen Elizabeth II's Homemade Drop Scones recipe sent to President Dwight Eisenhower after his informal visit to Balmoral in 1959. President Eisenhower was greeted with enthusiasm by the British people for his heroics during the war. The President traveled around Europe to before his visit to Soviet leader Nikita Krushchev. Eisenhower met with a pregnant Queen Elizabeth, despite her plan to avoid public appearances until the birth of her child, and spent a night at Balmoral.
Life Magazine, Vol. 40, no. 7, Sept. 7, 1959.
Reading Eagle, August 28, 1959

The Recipe: 
Apparently, Eisenhower was so taken with the drop scones served for tea, he request the recipe. On January 24, 1960, the Queen sent a handwritten reply to his request along with the recipe.

Click Americana Queen Elizabeth II, via the National Archives American Bicentennial exhibit, 200 Years of Collections at the National Archives

How Did You Make It:
First I made my own castor sugar by grinding granulated sugar in my Rocket Blender. 

I halved the recipe and then stupidly blindly followed directions, forgetting to proof the baking soda in milk and cream of tartar.

The mixture did bubble and start to rise. I had to add more flour because the dough was very very wet.

I scooped out the batter onto greased baking sheets.

 The recipe did not include baking temperature/time so I consulted Mary Berry's scone recipe and baked my scones at 425 for 13 minutes.

Time to Complete: Half an hour.

Total Cost:
I don't know. We had all the ingredients on hand. 

How Successful Was It?:

So-so. Not something I'd serve to Paul Hollywood and Mary Berry on the Great British Bake Off/British Baking Show but decent. The bottoms came out a bit too brown. They taste like biscuits rather than the Scottish scones I'm used to. I'm still waiting for my clotted cream to come in the mail so I made do with margarine and blueberry preserves. 

How Accurate Is It?: 
100% for Queen Elizabeth II, moderately for Queen Victoria.

Monday, February 9, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly #18

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #18: 

"Descriptive Foods"

The Challenge: Descriptive Foods

The Recipe: Snippy Doodle Cake
One cup granulated sugar, one cup flour, one half cup milk, two eggs beaten light, one tablespoonful butter, one tablespoonful cinnamon, one and one half teaspoonfuls baking powder. Cream butter and sugar add eggs beaten all together and light then the flour and milk stirring briskly. Mix cinnamon and baking powder together with the flour. Bake in a sheet and sprinkle granulated sugar on top when nearly done 
Elizabeth Lohman Gibraltar Island Ohio 

The Book of Priceless Recipes, George F. Lasher, printer, 1907  p. 125

I think this is a misprint or a corruption of Snickerdoodle. I found the recipe in the same cookbook as the Moravian Sugar Cake and it also contains a recipe for German Sand Tarts (Christmas cookies) which my Pennsylvania grandmother always made for Christmastime. I infer from all those German recipes and the fact that the book was published in Philadelphia, that Snickerdoodle might be a Pennsylvania Dutch cookie. The Food Timeline has various theories ranging from ancient European to Dutch to colonial New England and my personal theory, German/Pennsylvania Dutch. According to Wikipedia: The Joy of Cooking claims that snickerdoodles are probably German in origin, and that the name is a corruption of the German word Schneckennudel ("snail noodles"), a kind of pastry.[1] It is also possible that the name is simply a nonsense word with no particular meaning, originating from a New England tradition of whimsical cookie names.[2][3] "Snicker" may be a word of German origin and derived from the word "schnecken", i.e. sticky buns."
---Craig Claiborne's The New York Times Food Encyclopedia, Craig Claiborne [Times Books:New York] 1985 (p. 412) 

Snickerdoodle cookies first appeared in American cookbooks in the early 20th century. The modern type of Snickerdoodle does not contain nuts or fruit and this recipe apparently dates to 1958. Where Snippy came from, I don't know but it could be a typo. I just liked the name. 

How Did You Make It:

I followed the recipe. It didn't make enough to cover a baking sheet so I whipped up a double batch and baked it in muffin/cupcake tins. That made 2 1/2 dozen large cupcake/muffins.

Time to Complete: The key it to let the butter warm up so it creams with the sugar. That took awhile the first time as the house was cold. The second time I made sure to warm the butter first. The total time would probably be about 40 minutes or so.

Total Cost:
I don't know. We had all the ingredients on hand. There are very few ingredients. I imagine the cinnamon would be expensive if one used real cinnamon. I used grocery store brand.

How Successful Was It?:
100%. It felt like cheating this was so easy and soooo delicious! My dad and I almost ate the whole pan all at once. (Picture us going yuuummm soooo goood... break off another piece and repeat)

How Accurate Is It?: 
100% except I used store brand cheap cinnamon and not real Ceylon cinnamon. 

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly #17

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #17: 

"Revolutionary Foods"

The Challenge: Revolutionary Foods
The theme is revolution, and it’s all about ch-ch-ch-changes. Food can be inspired by revolution, can showcase a revolutionary technique, or come from a revolutionary time. Give us your best documented interpretation of revolution.

The Recipe: 

Rumford Peanut Biscuit Flakes

Why is it revolutionary?
First, baking powder, invented around 1850, replaced pot ash and saleratus, making it possible to bake bread quickly and easily. The Rumford Company was founded by Eben Horsford and George F. Wilson in 1854 (incorporated in 1859)  in what is now the Rumford section of East Providence, Rhode Island. They produced and shipped baking powder all over the country until 1968. Rumford Baking Powder was revolutionary during World War II. I'll let the original pamphlet explain:

A basic biscuit dough recipe can be made up quickly and easily for the busy mother/homemaker/working woman. This recipe follows the war time maxims:
War-time baking must be thrifty
-with Rumford's even, gentle action you don't have to rely on eggs to accomplishing your leavening.

War-time baking must use less sugar:
-Sugar tends to mask flavors . . . so when you use less sugar in a recipe you must be careful of your other ingredients. Rumford is an all-phosphate powder. It contains no alum, so it will never leave a bitter taste to spoil the flavor of sugar-shy foods.

War-time baking should contribute to good nutrition:
-Rumford contains valuable amounts of calcium and phosphorus .  . . those important minerals that help build and maintain strong bones and sound teeth.

War-time baking should waste nothing:
-Rely on Rumford's double-action to give you good leavening every time. 

Rumford Time-Saver Baking Plan saves time. Each of the eight recipes in the pamphlet will bake at the same temperature as the other seven recipes. Two, three, four or more of these good things can be baked at one time . . . using the same oven-heat (a time saving in itself!). You simply remove some of the dishes from the oven ahead of the others. Each of these baked things will keep well , properly stored. Just select a day and mix and bake your breads, cookies and cakes at once. Serve during the week as needed. What a thrill to be able to bring out some different homemade delight every day or so . . . to have something always on hand.

Takes Rumford to Make it Work

It's a Rumford idea . . . and it takes Rumford all-phosphate Baking Powder to make it work. When you open the oven door during the baking process, the gentle, even leavening action of Rumford protects you against baking failures.You want all your baked goods  . . . whether bread or cookies . . . to rise evenly, perfectly . . . and things raised just right are achieved with Rumford's controlled double-action. Baked goods to be kept for a week must stay fresh and moist. Actual laboratory testes prove that things made with Rumford keep fresh longer. 

Nutrition Dividends From Rumford
Rumford contains valuable amounts of calcium and phosphorus . . . those important minerals that help build strong bones and sound teeth. Every time you serve Rumford-baked things to your family, you're helping to fill a vital part of their daily diet needs.
   Remember, too, that because Rumford is an all-phosphate powder, it contains no alum, will never leave a bitter taste. All your baked goods will taste good down to the last tender crumb. 

from Rumford Quick Breads leaflet, Rumford Chemical Works, Rumford, Rhode Island
Johnson & Wales University Library collection 2011.164.0012

How Did You Make It:

Peanut Biscuit Flakes
2 c. home-made Rumford Biscuit Mix*
3/4 c. milk
1/2 c. peanut butter
honey or corn syrup

Measure mix. Add milk. Wrap dough in waxed paper; chill. Blend peanut butter and honey or corn syrup until spreadable consistency. Divide dough into 4 pieces; roll each piece into an oblong 6 1/2" X 3". [I did mine about 5 X7"]. Spread each piece of dough with peanut butter mixture; place piece of dough on top of one another in layers. Roll up jelly-roll fashion; cut in 1/2" slices. Place each slice cut side up in greased muffin pans. Bake in very hot (450 degree F) oven 10-15 minutes.

First I made my biscuit mix:
Home-Made Rumford Mix
4 c. flour
6 tsp. Rumford Baking Powder
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. shortening

Sift together flour, baking powder and salt. Cut in shortening with two knives or pastry blender. Store in tightly covered glass or china container in the refrigerator. [I stored it in a zip lock bag for a few hours].

Then I followed the recipe. I ended up with 4 large biscuits and placed them on a cookie sheet, cut sides together, with toothpicks to hold the rolled shape.

 I baked for 15 minutes and they were perfectly done. 

Time to Complete: Not counting chilling, 20 minutes

Total Cost:
I don't know. We had all the ingredients on hand.

How Successful Was It?:
Mostly. I had a hard time rolling the dough to the recommended size which made it hard to roll. The taste is fine though. It's not very sweet but not bad. 

How Accurate Is It?: 
100% down to the Rumford Baking Powder. (I grew up in the shadow of the old factory and always use Rumford Baking Powder).

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #16

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #16: 

"Celebratory Foods"

The Challenge: Celebratory Foods
It’s the end of the year, a time for celebration! Pick a celebratory food (either inspired by the season or not, it’s your call). Make it up and share it with loved ones!

The Recipe: 

I turned again to my family history for inspiration. I decided to make
Moravian Sugar Cake

About the Moravians
The Moravian Church started in present-day Czech Republic in the 14th century. By that time most of what is now eastern Europe had converted t0 coptic Christianity, however Bohemia and Moravia fell under the jurisdiction of Rome. Some of the inhabitants of the area protested. John Hus (1369-1415),a  professor of philosophy and rector of the University in Prague, became the leader of the religious protest and was burned at the stake for his criticism of the hierarchy and practices of the Church of Rome. By 1457, supporters of Hus gathered in the village of Kunvald, about 100 miles east of Prague, in eastern Bohemia, and organized the Moravian Church, 

Over the next 100 years, the Moravians emphasized reading the Bible in the vernacular and spread word of the Scriptures to the people of Bohemia, Moravia and later Poland, where they forced to relocate after persecution. 

The 18th century saw a revival of the Moravian Church through the patronage of Count Nicholas  Ludwig von Zinzendorf, a pietist nobleman in Saxony. He encouraged the Moravians to take the word of the Gospel to other countries. 

The first Moravians to set up a permanent settlement in America settled in Pennsylvania in 1741. The newly arrived Moravians settled on the estate of George Whitefield at first and then purchased 500 acres to establish the settlement of Bethlehem in 1741. Bethlehem became the center of Moravian activity in North America. 

Bethlehem 1754

A Brief History of the Moravian Church, Moravian Church of North America,

The modern Unitas Fratrum (or Moravian Church) continues to draw on traditions established during the 18th-century renewal. In many places it observes the convention of the lovefeast, originally started in 1727. It uses older and traditional music in worship. Brass music, congregational singing and choral music continue to be very important in Moravian congregations. 
Moravian Church, wikipedia

My grandmother lives in Bethlehem and my mother grew up in the Moravian Church. My mom remembers the lovefeasts, services dedicated to Christian love. Traditionally during Lovefeasts, a sweetened bun and coffee is served to the congregation in the pews. The foods and drinks consumed from congregation may vary tremendously at the Lovefeast and are usually adapted from what the congregations have available. Services in some Colonial-era Lovefeasts, for example, used plain bread and water. A Lovefeast may be held on any special occasion, typically on certain established dates including Good Friday, the Festival of August 13th (the 1727 date on which the Moravian Church was renewed or reborn), and Christmas Eve, where each member of the congregation receives a lighted candle at the end of the service in addition to the bun and coffee.
Lovefeasts, Wikipedia

My mom remembers eating Moravian Sugar Cake on Christmas Eve and I remember my grandparents bringing it for Christmas morning breakfast, though they no longer attended the Moravian Church. I found an account of Moravian Sugar Cake being eaten on New Year's Eve:
"On New Year's Eve it was customary to hold three services in the church with an intermission namely preaching at 8 o clock reading of the memorabilia and statistics an elaborate review of the year's work at I0 o clock and the closing services at 11.30 o clock Some of the members served sugar cake a raised cake often called Moravian cake made according to a special recipe and coffee at their homes during the first intermission."
Weitzel, Louisa, "How the  New Year is Celebrated by the Moravians," The Penn Germania, vol. 10, 1909 

According to, the first recipe for Moravian Sugar Cake was included in In Eliza Leslie's cookbook, Directions for Cookery in its Various Branches by Miss Leslie, in the 1837 edition, though references go back to the early settlers. The original Leslie recipe is as follows:
Moravian Sugar Cake
Cut a quarter of a pound of butter into a pint of rich milk, and warm it till the butter becomes soft; then stir it about in the milk so as to mix them well. Sift three quarters of a pound of flour (or a pint and a half) into a deep pan, and making a ole in the middle of it, stir in a large table-spoonful of the best brewer's yeast in which a salt-spoonful of salt has been dissolved; and then thin it with the milk and butter. Cover it, and set it near the fire to rise. If the yeast is sufficiently strong, it will most probably be in two hours. When it is quite light, mix with the dough a well-beaten egg and three quarters of a pound more of sifted flour; adding a tea-spoonful of oil of cinnamon, and stirring it very hard. Butter a deep square baking pan, and put the mixture into it. Set it to rise again, as before. Mix together five ounces or a large coffee-cup of fine brown sugar; two ounces of butter; and two table-spoonfuls of powdered cinnamon. When the dough is thoroughly light, make deep incisions all over it, at equal distances, and fill them with the mixture of butter, sugar and cinnamon; pressing it hard down into the bottom of the holes, and closing the dough a little at the top to prevent the seasoning from running out.. Strew some sugar over the top of the cake; set it immediately into the oven, and bake it from twenty minutes to half an hour, or more, in a brisk oven in proportion to its thickness. When cool, cut it into squares. This is a very good plain cake; but do not attempt it unless you have excellent yeast."
 Several other recipes and a more detailed description can be found on

How Did You Make It:
I found several more modern recipes for Moravian Sugar Cake and of course, the definitive modern recipe which comes from the Waconia Moravian Church. The recipe I used as a guideline comes from
The Book of Priceless Recipes, 
George F. Lasher, printer, 1907, p. 118 (no. 2)

One pint yeast one pint sweet milk lukewarm one cup butter and lard mixed; one cup sugar one half teaspoonful salt. In the evening mix these well together adding flour until in kneading the sponge no longer adheres to the hand. The next morning knead and spread dough one half inch thick on cake tins. Let it rise until light. Spread with butter make holes here and there and fill with lumps of butte.r Strew the whole richly with brown sugar and bake. After removing from the oven dress with nutmeg and cinnamon.
 Elizabeth Comfort Gerhart 118 

I used half butter and half shortening instead of lard. I melted that on the stove, added the milk and then the yeast. While letting that sit a few minutes, I put the sugar and salt in a mixing bowl. Then I added the wet ingredients to the dry ones and mixed in about 4-5 cups of flour to make a yeast dough. 

I let the dough rise (unsuccessfully) for several hours before kneading and  spreading it in a 9X13" cake pan. I let it stand for a few more hours to see if it would rise. 

For the topping I used the modern recipe as a guideline since nutmeg is not traditional.  I then mixed the butter, brown sugar and cinnamon into a syrup and poked holes into the dough.

Next I poured the syrup into the holes and pinched them closed.

I baked it at 375 for 30 minutes. 

Time to Complete: several hours

Total Cost:
I don't know. We had all the ingredients on hand.

How Successful Was It?:
Not very. My dough wouldn't rise at all and the inside of the cake didn't really cook all the way through. It tastes OK thanks to the cinnamon and sugar.

How Accurate Is It?: 
Mostly accurate from the 1907 recipe. 

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #15

Historical Food Fortnightly Challenge #15: 

"Sacred or Profane"

The Challenge: Sacred or Profane

I found it difficult to document any of the traditional recipes we made for Christmas. I can't read Italian or Norwegian and my Nonnie put her own spin on her traditional Neapolitan desserts so that was out, despite the feast of 7 fishes and numerous desserts...

I made two recipes that fit the category: St. Lucia buns and rice pudding. December 13, by the old calender, was the darkest day of the year in Sweden. In Christian times it became the Saint's day of St. Lucia, the patron saint of light. Lucia or Lucy was an early Christian martyr who donated her dowry to help the poor. Supposedly she sent food supplies to Sweden during a famine. December 13 is celebrated as St. Lucia's Day in Sweden as a festival of light. One young woman (historically the oldest girl in the family) is chosen to be the Lucia bride or queen and she leads a procession and serves sweet saffron buns twisted into special shapes to her family and visitors.

Rice Pudding is a Christmas Eve tradition in my family going back to my grandmother's child and before that her mother and Norwegian grandmother. Christmas Eve was their big holiday and they had a meatless meal of fish. There was dried fish called lutfisk and fish pudding called plukfisk.

Plukfisk ready to go in the oven

"Plukkfisk is a classic Norwegian dish which consists of pieces of fish, potatoes and onion cooked in a bechamel sauce.  The dish is originally from Hordaland county, on the west coast of Norway and the home of the second largest city in the country, Bergen.  Cod is traditionally used as the fish, but you can use any white fish you like. “'Plukk' means 'pick' in Norwegian, and refers to the fact that you pick the fish and the dish is served in small pieces. 
from Arctic Grub

Following the fish pudding came risgrøt, rice pudding served with butter and cinnamon sugar in a soup bowl.  My great-grandmother told the story that one must always leave a bowl of rice pudding for Nissen (an elf-like creature who lives in the barn) so he wouldn't cause mischief.

Originally, from the Viking times to the late nineteenth century, Grøt was made from barley. In Christian times it was eaten on Sundays and holidays. This dish was not sweet like the modern dish until the late 1800’s when sugar and cinnamon was introduced to Norway. Sweet risgrøt, rice porridge has been around since the 1800s, when rice began to be imported to Norway, and it was included in the first Norwegian cookbook published in 1845.
I was able to document the traditional Christmas rice pudding in several sources:
"On Christmas Eve every person of condition has a mess of rice-porridge..."

Frederick Metcalfe, The Oxonian in Thelemarken; Or, Notes of Travel in Southwestern Norway in 1856, Hurst and Blackett, 1858.

 "In every house from that of the wealthy nobleman to that of the peasant the same Christmas supper is served a specially prepared fish for the first course rice with cream and powdered cinnamon for the second and roast goose for the third ...." 
Christopher Orlando Sylvester Mawson, Doubleday, Page & Co's Geographical Manual and New Atlas ,1918

"Our Swedish supper. The first course was lut fisk. This is a ling or a cod prepared for a Christmas delicacy by being buried for days in wood ashes. A piece of lut fisk placed on your plate immediately falls apart into flakes each flake is translucent and trembles like jelly. When eaten alone it is tasteless but when seasoned with salt much pepper and lots of butter sauce of two kinds and well mixed with a mealy potato the lut fisk is delicious. The next course was rice porridge with powdered cinnamon and cream and the third and last a great fat goose roasted to a turn. These are the three time honored dishes for Christmas eve and while we supped every family in Sweden from the King to the peasant was eating just the same sort of supper with the same courses and in every home throughout the Northland from the palace to the backwoods hut stood the Jul gran the Christmas tree with ribbons fluttering from its branches and wax tapers burning brightly from every bough."
William Widgery Thomas, Sweden and the Swedes, Rand, McNally, 1891

The Recipe: 

Ideal Rolls
Butter an earthen bowl
Melt two table spoonfuls of the best table butter but do not burn it
Keep it melted until you need it
Then heat to boiling one pint of milk and one half pint of sweet cream
Cool to a tepid state
Mix one cake of compressed yeast with a little of the milk
Add one generous half spoonful of salt
Sift a quart of flour into an earthen bowl and make a batter with the milk and cream
Beat with a wooden spoon or spatula the more air you can beat in the better and the fresher the air the more improving it is to the bread
When the batter is smooth stir in flour until it is too stiff to stir then mold it thoroughly pulling it and beating it with the palms of the hands until it will mold free of the board without flour Put the dough into the buttered earthen bowl and brush it over with the melted butter. A paint brush is best for this purpose I use a large and a small one .
Cover over the dough and put it into a warm place but not on the stove. It needs an even heat this is why it is put into an earthen. It will take from an hour and a half to two hours to rise. It must not crack open but be on the verge of cracking. Mold again and shape into rolls. Brush the rolls carefully over with melted butter set them to rise for an hour or an hour a quarter. When they are light bake from ten to fifteen minutes in a hot oven and just before they are to come out them over with milk. This makes a brown crust. A hot oven and quick makes them tender They should be snowy white very light but with rather a fine texture and should have a very sweet rich taste .If the directions are followed and the yeast and flour good this will be the case Octave Thanet
Marion Harland, The Home-maker: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine, Volume 1889  
 Rice Milk Pudding

RICE MILK. --Pick and wash half a pint of rice, and boil it in a quart of water till it is quite soft. Then drain it, and mix it with a quart of rich milk. You may add half a pound of whole raisins. Set it over hot coals, and stir it frequently till it boils. When it boils hard, stir in alternately two beaten eggs, and four large table-spoonfuls of brown sugar. Let it continue boiling five minutes longer; then take it off, and send it to table hot. If you put in raisins you must let it boil till they are quite soft.
Esther Allen Howland, The New England Economical Housekeeper Family Receipt Book,
Cincinnati: H. W. Derby & Co., 1845

This recipe is the closest to the modern one we make. 

The Date/Year and Region:1889 United States, 1845 New England

How Did You Make It:

St. Lucia Buns/Lussekatter

7/8 c.butter (3/4 c +2 T)
2 c. milk
1 pkg. yeast
2/3 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1 1/2 tsp. saffron (to taste)
2 eggs
5 cups flour (approx. you will probably need more)
1/2 cup raisins (optional)


Melted the butter on the stove, added milk and turned the heat up until the mixture was lukewarm. Then I added the yeast and stirred the mixture, letting it sit for a couple of minutes while mixing sugar, salt and crushed saffron. I  beat an egg and added the milk mixture and then the dry ingredients and mixed with an electric mixer. I then added as much flour as needed to form a ball. I turned the ball out onto a floured surface and kneaded for a few minutes before leaving the dough to rise for several hours. After the dough rose, I broke pieces and knead each piece before rolling into snakes. I made two snakes, crossed in an X and curled the tops under and the bottoms up. I added Craisins (since I don't eat raisins) to the curls and brushed with a beaten egg. I placed the buns on a greased cookie sheet and baked at 375 for 20-25 minutes. I serve warm with melted butter on Christmas morning. Some people like to split them in half and toast them.

from Ekte Norsk Jul: Traditional Norwegian Christmas by Astrid Karlsen Scott

Rice Pudding
We rub butter over the bottom of a saucepan to prevent burning. Then place 1 cup or 2 cups (we did 2 this year for a large crowd) in the saucepan with the same amount of water and a cinnamon stick. With the stove on medium heat, we brought the rice to a boil and then lowered the heat until it simmered. We covered the pan and simmered until the water was all absorbed. Next we added 4 (or 8) cups milk and brought the mixture to simmering over medium-high heat. When the milk simmered, we lowered the heat to low and added 3 (6) tablespoons of brown sugar and stirred. Covering the pan again, we let the mixture simmer until thickened. When most of the milk is simmered away, remove from heat and take out the cinnamon stick.

Adapted from The American Girls Collection Kirsten's Cookbook, Pleasant Company 1994

Time to Complete: several hours

Total Cost:
I don't know. We bought the saffron (cheap saffron) rice,  and whole milk and had the rest on hand.

How Successful Was It?:
I cheated and used the modern recipes we always use so I knew they would both be delicious!

How Accurate Is It?: 
Ideal rolls: Somewhat. I used modern powdered yeast, regular 1% milk and rolled into special shapes. I brushed with an egg but when I don't have egg, I use milk.

Rice Pudding: Mostly. We added the cinnamon stick and omitted the raisins. We serve with cinnamon sugar sprinkled from my great-great grandmother's slotted spoon. 

Longer story about St. Lucia's Day:

The Legend of Lussi

In old Sweden, the 13th of December was known as Lussinatt or Lussi night, the most frightening night of the whole year. Lussi was a demon who caused havoc haunting every farm in the district. Children who had been naughty feared Lussi would sweep down the chimney, scoop them up and take them away.
In parts of Europe, including Sweden and along the coast of South Central Norway, Lussi was a winter tradition. It was believed that all Christmas peparations had to be completed by the winter solstice, December 13. It was feared that Lussi and her cats were would harm anyone working on December 13th. Also on this night, domestic animals were given the power of speech.

St. Lucia, Catholic martyr

The legend of St. Lucia varies greatly. She was generally believed to be a martyr in the year 304 A.D. She was from an aristocratic family who lived in Syracusa, Sicily. Lucia's mother became very ill when Lucia was a young girl. They traveled to a neighboring town where they prayed for healing in front of a picture of St. Agatha. The saint appeared to them and Lucia's mother was healed by St. Agatha. Lucia was deeply touched by this miracle and she vowed to dedicate her life to Christ and remain pure throughout her life. She distributed her dowry among the poor people of Sicily. Her fiance was furious and informed the authorities that hs bride-to-be was a Christian, which was a crime punishable by death. They agreed to burn Lucia at the stake. When the judgement was being carried out, she was smeared with oil, resin, and pitch, but the flames could not harm her. God was protecting Lucia from the flames. Lucia's definace of death enraged her fiance and he thrust his sword through her neck, thus killing her. 200 years later she was canonized by the Catholic church and became the patron saint of light.

Lucia comes to Sweden
In the middle ages, the solstice was a time of great festivities and celebration. By the 1700s, the date of the winter solstice was changed to December 21 and December 13 was saved for Lussi. The St. Lucia festival as we know it today began in South West Germany where a small child, resembling the Christ Child, dressed in white with a wreath of candles in her hair, went out giving Christmas treats. This custom spread to Sweden by the mid 1700s and evolved into the modern celebration of St. Lucia.
The St. Lucia festival as we know it today began in South West Germany where a small child, resembling the Christ Child, dressed in white with a wreath of candles in her hair, went out giving Christmas treats. This custom spread to Sweden by the mid 1700s and evolved into the modern celebration of St. Lucia. Lucia originally came to Sweden from Syracuse where she was a saint in the days of Christian persecution. She appeared for the first time in Västergötland at the beginning of the 19th century. Lucia Day is December 13th because that was belived to be the midwinter solstice.
The Lucia Queen or Lucia bride is traditionally the oldest girl in a family. Lucia appears early in the morning wearing a long, white robe, red sash and a crown of glowing candles on her head. She is accompanied by girls also wearing long white robes amd by "Star Boys" with tall hats and Tomtar (elves). She brings a tray of coffee, Lucia buns (Lussekatter) or gingerbread cookies.

Other versions of the myth
The Legend of Sankta Lucia

History of St. Lucia